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A temporary elevated working platform with a supporting structure which is used to support man, machine, and material is called scaffolding.

There are two types of scaffolding

1) Supported scaffolding

    i. Welded frame

    ii. Wood pole

    iii. Tube and coupler

    iv. Bamboo

2) Suspended scaffolding

    i. Single point suspended scaffolding

    ii. Multiple points suspended scaffolding

    iii. Floats/ floating cranes

    iv. Boats and wanes chair

3) Mobile Scaffolding

4) Permanent scaffolding

Hazards in scaffolding

  • Fall form elevation
  • Bad planking
  • Scaffold collapse
  • Getting struck by falling tools & debris
  • electrocution

Points to be checked while green tagging erected scaffolding

Before using of scaffold check the tag (7 days validity). Green tag we can use the scaffold and Red tag for not use and Yellow tag use only for scaffolding works.
Level and firmness of the ground.
  • Sole plate
  • Base plate
  • Standards
  • Ledger
  • Transom
  • Couplers
  • Planks (boards)
  • Toe boards
  • Braising
  • Guard rails
  • Mid rail
  • Out riggers
  • Ladders

Potential Hazards of scaffolding

  • Collapse of Scaffolding.
  • Falling from height.
  • Falling object.
  • Slip & Trip hazards.
  • Pinch point hazards / Sharp edges
  • Opening without guardrail.
  • Scaffold erection during storm or high winds, raining and poor visibility.
  • Blocking emergency access and walkways

Cause of scaffolding failure

  • Slipping of unsecured ladder.
  • Use of unsuitable scaffold or faulty materials.
  • Inadequate or irregular platform width.
  • Omission of guard rails or toe boards.
  • Failure to proper secure the scaffold to the building or to brace it adequately.
  • Overloading on the scaffold platforms.

Preventive action

  • Competent scaffold erector
  • Strong scaffold material with good planking
  • Use of scaffolding tag- green, yellow, red
  • Proper hand rail, mid rail, toe guard
  • Use of full body harness
  • Good arrangement of ladder
  • Use of safety net bellow the working surface
  • Barricading around the scaffolding work
  • Scaffolding should not touch the over head lines
  • Proper insulated electrical tools to be used
  • Work to be done under proper supervision
  • Scaffolding erection, dismantling should be done under the supervision of a COMPETENT PERSON (Scaffolding Supervisor).
  • Red Tag‟ means Danger “do not use” and Green Tag means “scaffold complete-ready for use” when completed.
  • Gap between boards/planks should be 1 inch (25mm).
  • Top guardrail, midrail and toe board should be provided.
  • Guard rails and Toa boards shall be fitted to the inside of standards.
  • Guard rail should have a height between 915 mm (0.9 m or 90 cm or 3‟ feet) to 1143 mm (1.15 m or 3‟ 9”)
  • Toe board should be 6” (15 cm) high and secured with toe board clips.
  • If scaffold to be erected on soft ground should be used sole plate.
  • Worker shall be not work on scaffolds during storms or high winds or poor visibility.
  • Sole plate shall extend under at least two standards.
  • Base plates with screw jacks should be proper scaffold leveling adjustment.
  • All standard shall be vertical.
  • Ledgers shall be securely fixed to standards couplers.
  • Scaffolds should be properly braced by cross bracing or diagonal braces or both for securing vertical members together.
  • Access ladder must be provided for any platform & clamped with scaffold structure.
  • Ladder should be 4:1 ratio and angle 750.
  • Ladder should be rise 1 meter (42 inch) above from the landing place/platform.
  • Scaffold should be not obstruct access to/from any fire fighting equipment / emergency equipment, operating area equipment, instrument and control panels, ladders, stairways etc.
  • Scaffold platform opening should be secured with guardrail and sign board.
  • All scaffolding couplers should be tightened.

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Thanks for reading - Scaffolding and its type
Naitik Patel
Industrial Guide

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